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Title: Re-evaluating the environmental impacts of tourism: does EKC exist?
Authors: Mikayilov, Jeyhun I.
Mukhtarov, Shahriyar
Mammadov, Jeyhun
Azizov, Mayis
Keywords: Environmental degradation from tourism
Ecological footprint
Environmental Kuznets curve
Time-varying coefficient cointegration
Resource-rich country
Issue Date: 2019
Citation: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Series/Report no.: Vol. 26;№ 19
Abstract: The study investigates the long-run impact of tourism development on ecological footprint by employing the time-varying coefficient cointegration approach (TVC), in addition to the conventional cointegration techniques in the case of Azerbaijan for the period of 1996–2014. Based on the TVC estimation results, the coefficient of tourism development, which is the income elasticity of environmental degradation, was found to be time invariant. The paper uses energy consumption, trade, urbanization, and institutional quality indicators as control explanatory variables. The estimation results revealed that trade and energy consumption have statistically significant and positive impact on ecological footprint, while the coefficients of the other explanatory variables were found to be insignificant. Both the conventional estimation methods and the TVC concluded that, for the relationship between ecological footprint and tourism development, the EKC hypothesis is not present in Azerbaijan. Policy implications for the resource-rich economies have been discussed.
ISSN: 0944-1344
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